Thousands of "yellow vest" protesters have marched through Paris and other French cities on the 12th weekend of action against the government, despite opinion polls pointing to a recovery in President Emmanuel Macron's popularity.
The protests on Saturday - named after the fluorescent jackets French drivers are required to carry in their cars - began in mid-November over plans to raise fuel taxes before developing into a broader revolt against the government that have mobilised tens of thousands of demonstrators nationwide each Saturday.
The government warned on Friday police would not hesitate to use flashballs in case of violence by demonstrators after it was authorised by France's highest administrative court.
Protesters in Paris on Saturday paid homage to those injured in the past months, denouncing the use of flashball riot control guns banned in much of Europe.
Between 10,000 and 13,800 protested in the capital according to police and independent media estimates. Riot police used tear gas to disperse some protesters who set bins and a scooter alight, although the situation remained relatively calm compared to previous weekends. Thousands also took to the streets in cities, including Tours, Valence, Marseille and Bordeaux.
About 1,000 police officers have been injured along with 1,700 demonstrators since the start of the protests, according to official figures.
"It's true that this intermediate weapon can hurt, but faced with rioters, the police need it to defend themselves against those who attack them," said Interior Minister Christophe Castaner.
Opinion polls show a recovery in Macron's battered popularity rating after he launched consultations, including town hall debates, to try to quell social unrest.
A Harris Interactive poll of 1,000 people on Friday showed Macron gaining 4 percentage points since December taking him to a 35 per cent approval rating.
As in previous weeks, protesters on Saturday carried French flags and held signs attacking Macron as out of touch or calling for referendums tabled by citizens.